Invited Session @ FEPSET 19

I gave a talk on “Dynamic Droop Control for Low Inertia Power Systems” in the invited session at Future Electric Power Systems and the Energy Transition 2019. Related publications include [1, 2, 3, 4]

[1] [doi] F. Paganini and E. Mallada, “Global analysis of synchronization performance for power systems: bridging the theory-practice gap,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 67, iss. 7, pp. 3007-3022, 2020.
[Bibtex] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

The issue of synchronization in the power grid is receiving renewed attention, as new energy sources with different dynamics enter the picture. Global metrics have been proposed to evaluate performance, and analyzed under highly simplified assumptions. In this paper we extend this approach to more realistic network scenarios, and more closely connect it with metrics used in power engineering practice. In particular, our analysis covers networks with generators of heterogeneous ratings and richer dynamic models of machines. Under a suitable proportionality assumption in the parameters, we show that the step response of bus frequencies can be decomposed in two components. The first component is a system-wide frequency that captures the aggregate grid behavior, and the residual component represents the individual bus frequency deviations from the aggregate. Using this decomposition, we define –and compute in closed form– several metrics that capture dynamic behaviors that are of relevance for power engineers. In particular, using the system frequency, we define industry-style metrics (Nadir, RoCoF) that are evaluated through a representative machine. We further use the norm of the residual component to define a synchronization cost that can appropriately quantify inter-area oscillations. Finally, we employ robustness analysis tools to evaluate deviations from our proportionality assumption. We show that the system frequency still captures the grid steady-state deviation, and becomes an accurate reduced-order model of the grid as the network connectivity grows. Simulation studies with practically relevant data are included to validate the theory and further illustrate the impact of network structure and parameters on synchronization. Our analysis gives conclusions of practical interest, sometimes challenging the conventional wisdom in the field.

@article{pm2020tac,
  abstract = {The issue of synchronization in the power grid is receiving renewed attention, as new energy sources with different dynamics enter the picture. Global metrics have been proposed to evaluate performance, and analyzed under highly simplified assumptions. In this paper we extend this approach to more realistic network scenarios, and more closely connect it with metrics used in power engineering practice. In particular, our analysis covers networks with generators of heterogeneous ratings and richer dynamic models of machines. Under a suitable proportionality assumption in the parameters, we show that the step response of bus frequencies can be decomposed in two components. The first component is a system-wide frequency that captures the aggregate grid behavior, and the residual component represents the individual bus frequency deviations from the aggregate. Using this decomposition, we define --and compute in closed form-- several metrics that capture dynamic behaviors that are of relevance for power engineers. In particular, using the system frequency, we define industry-style metrics (Nadir, RoCoF) that are evaluated through a representative machine. We further use the norm of the residual component to define a synchronization cost that can appropriately quantify inter-area oscillations. Finally, we employ robustness analysis tools to evaluate deviations from our proportionality assumption. We show that the system frequency still captures the grid steady-state deviation, and becomes an accurate reduced-order model of the grid as the network connectivity grows. Simulation studies with practically relevant data are included to validate the theory and further illustrate the impact of network structure and parameters on synchronization. Our analysis gives conclusions of practical interest, sometimes challenging the conventional wisdom in the field.},
  author = {Paganini, Fernando and Mallada, Enrique},
  doi = {10.1109/TAC.2019.2942536},
  grants = {CPS-1544771, AMPS-1736448, EPCN-1711188, CAREER-1752362, ENERGISE-DE-EE0008006},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control},
  month = {7},
  number = {7},
  pages = {3007-3022},
  title = {Global analysis of synchronization performance for power systems: bridging the theory-practice gap},
  url = {https://mallada.ece.jhu.edu/pubs/2020-TAC-PM.pdf},
  volume = {67},
  year = {2020}
}
[2] Unknown bibtex entry with key [jpm2019a-preprint]
[Bibtex]
[3] [doi] Y. Jiang, R. Pates, and E. Mallada, “Performance tradeoffs of dynamically controlled grid-connected inverters in low inertia power systems,” in 56th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), 2017, pp. 5098-5105.
[Bibtex] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

Implementing frequency response using grid-connected inverters is one of the popular proposed alternatives to mitigate the dynamic degradation experienced in low inertia power systems. However, such solution faces several challenges as inverters do not intrinsically possess the natural response to power fluctuations that synchronous generators have. Thus, to synthetically generate this response, inverters need to take frequency measurements, which are usually noisy, and subsequently make changes in the output power, which are therefore delayed. This paper explores the system-wide performance tradeoffs that arise when measurement noise, delayed actions, and power disturbances are considered in the design of dynamic controllers for grid-connected inverters. Using a recently proposed dynamic droop (iDroop) control for grid-connected inverters that is inspired by classical first order lead-lag compensation, we show that the sets of parameters that result in highest noise attenuation, power disturbance mitigation, and delay robustness do not necessarily have a common intersection. In particular, lead compensation is desired in systems where power disturbances are the predominant source of degradation, while lag compensation is a better alternative when the system is dominated by delays or frequency noise. Our analysis further shows that iDroop can outperform the standard droop alternative in both joint noise and disturbance mitigation, and delay robustness.

@inproceedings{jpm2017cdc,
  abstract = {Implementing frequency response using grid-connected inverters is one of the popular proposed alternatives to mitigate the dynamic degradation experienced in low inertia power systems. However, such solution faces several challenges as inverters do not intrinsically possess the natural response to power fluctuations that synchronous generators have. Thus, to synthetically generate this response, inverters need to take frequency measurements, which are usually noisy, and subsequently make changes in the output power, which are therefore delayed. This paper explores the system-wide performance tradeoffs that arise when measurement noise, delayed actions, and power disturbances are considered in the design of dynamic controllers for grid-connected inverters. 
Using a recently proposed dynamic droop (iDroop) control for grid-connected inverters that is inspired by classical first order lead-lag compensation, we show that the sets of parameters that result in highest noise attenuation, power disturbance mitigation, and delay robustness do not necessarily have a common intersection. In particular, lead compensation is desired in systems where power disturbances are the predominant source of degradation, while lag compensation is a better alternative when the system is dominated by delays or frequency noise. Our analysis further shows that iDroop can outperform the standard droop alternative in both joint noise and disturbance mitigation, and delay robustness.},
  author = {Jiang, Yan and Pates, Richard and Mallada, Enrique},
  booktitle = {56th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC)},
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2017.8264414},
  grants = {1544771, 1711188, W911NF-17-1-0092},
  keywords = {Power Networks},
  month = {12},
  pages = {5098-5105},
  title = {Performance tradeoffs of dynamically controlled grid-connected inverters in low inertia power systems},
  url = {https://mallada.ece.jhu.edu/pubs/2017-CDC-JPM.pdf},
  year = {2017}
}
[4] [doi] E. Mallada, “iDroop: A dynamic droop controller to decouple power grid’s steady-state and dynamic performance,” in 55th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), 2016, pp. 4957-4964.
[Bibtex] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

This paper presents a novel Dynam-i-c Droop (iDroop) control mechanism to perform primary frequency control with gird-connected inverters that improves the network dynamic performance while maintaining the same steady-state characteristics of droop control. The work is motivated by the increasing dynamic degradation experienced by the power grid due to the increment on asynchronous inverted-based generation. We show that the widely suggested virtual inertia solution suffers from unbounded noise amplification (infinite H2 norm) and therefore could potentially degrade further the grid performance once widely deployed. This motivates the proposed solution on this paper that over- comes the limitations of virtual inertia controllers while sharing the same advantages of traditional droop control. In particular, our iDroop controllers are decentralized, rebalance supply and demand, and provide power sharing. Furthermore, our solution improves the dynamic performance without affecting the steady state solution. Our algorithm can be incrementally deployed and can be guaranteed to be stable using a decentralized sufficient stability condition on the parameter values. We illustrate several features of our solution using numerical simulations.

@inproceedings{m2016cdc,
  abstract = {This paper presents a novel Dynam-i-c Droop (iDroop) control mechanism to perform primary frequency control with gird-connected inverters that improves the network dynamic performance while maintaining the same steady-state characteristics of droop control. The work is motivated by the increasing dynamic degradation experienced by the power grid due to the increment on asynchronous inverted-based generation. We show that the widely suggested virtual inertia solution suffers from unbounded noise amplification (infinite H2 norm) and therefore could potentially degrade further the grid performance once widely deployed.
This motivates the proposed solution on this paper that over- comes the limitations of virtual inertia controllers while sharing the same advantages of traditional droop control. In particular, our iDroop controllers are decentralized, rebalance supply and demand, and provide power sharing. Furthermore, our solution improves the dynamic performance without affecting the steady state solution. Our algorithm can be incrementally deployed and can be guaranteed to be stable using a decentralized sufficient stability condition on the parameter values. We illustrate several features of our solution using numerical simulations.},
  author = {Mallada, Enrique},
  booktitle = {55th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC)},
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2016.7799027},
  grants = {1544771},
  keywords = {Power Networks},
  month = {12},
  pages = {4957-4964},
  title = {iDroop: A dynamic droop controller to decouple power grid's steady-state and dynamic performance},
  url = {https://mallada.ece.jhu.edu/pubs/2016-CDC-M.pdf},
  year = {2016}
}

2 papers accepted to ACC 19

Our papers on voltage collapse stabilization [1] and coordinating distribution system resources in energy and ancillary service transmission system markets [2] have been accepted to 2019 American Control Conference!

[1] [doi] C. Avraam, J. Rines, A. Sarker, F. Paganini, and E. Mallada, “Voltage Collapse Stabilization in Star DC Networks,” in American Control Conference, 2019, pp. 1957-1964.
[Bibtex] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

Voltage collapse is a type of blackout-inducing dynamic instability that occurs when the power demand exceeds the maximum power that can be transferred through the network. The traditional (preventive) approach to avoid voltage collapse is based on ensuring that the network never reaches its maximum capacity. However, such an approach leads to inefficiencies as it prevents operators to fully utilize the network resources and does not account for unprescribed events. To overcome this limitation, this paper seeks to initiate the study of voltage collapse stabilization. More precisely, for a DC network, we formulate the problem of voltage stability as a dynamic problem where each load seeks to achieve a constant power consumption by updating its conductance as the voltage changes. We show that such a system can be interpreted as a dynamic game, where each player (load) seeks to myopically maximize their utility, and where every stable power flow solution amounts to a Local Nash Equilibrium. Using this framework, we show that voltage collapse is equivalent to the non-existence of a Local Nash Equilibrium in the game and, as a result, it is caused by the lack of cooperation between loads. Finally, we propose a Voltage Collapse Stabilizer (VCS) controller that uses (flexible) loads that are willing to cooperate and provides a fair allocation of the curtailed demand. Our solution stabilizes voltage collapse even in the presence of non-cooperative loads. Numerical simulations validate several features of our controllers.

@inproceedings{arspm2019acc,
  abstract = {Voltage collapse is a type of blackout-inducing dynamic instability that occurs when the power demand exceeds the maximum power that can be transferred through the network. The traditional (preventive) approach to avoid voltage collapse is based on ensuring that the network never reaches its maximum capacity. However, such an approach leads to inefficiencies as it prevents operators to fully utilize the network resources and does not account for unprescribed events. To overcome this limitation, this paper seeks to initiate the study of voltage collapse stabilization.

More precisely, for a DC network, we formulate the problem of voltage stability as a dynamic problem where each load seeks to achieve a constant power consumption by updating its conductance as the voltage changes. We show that such a system can be interpreted as a dynamic game, where each player (load) seeks to myopically maximize their utility, and where every stable power flow solution amounts to a Local Nash Equilibrium.

Using this framework, we show that voltage collapse is equivalent to the non-existence of a Local Nash Equilibrium in the game and, as a result, it is caused by the lack of cooperation
between loads. Finally, we propose a Voltage Collapse Stabilizer (VCS) controller that uses (flexible) loads that are willing to cooperate and provides a fair allocation of the curtailed demand. Our solution stabilizes voltage collapse even in the presence of non-cooperative loads. Numerical simulations validate several features of our controllers.},
  author = {Avraam, Charalampos and Rines, Jesse and Sarker, Aurik and Paganini, Fernando and Mallada, Enrique},
  booktitle = {American Control Conference},
  doi = {10.23919/ACC.2019.8814708},
  grants = {CAREER-1752362,EPCN-1711188,ENERGISE-DE-EE0008006,ARO-W911NF-17-1-0092,EPCN-1711188,CPS-1544771},
  keywords = {Power Networks},
  month = {06},
  pages = {1957-1964},
  title = {Voltage Collapse Stabilization in Star DC Networks},
  url = {https://mallada.ece.jhu.edu/pubs/2019-ACC-ARSPM.pdf},
  year = {2019}
}
[2] [doi] C. Ji, M. H. Hajiesmaili, D. F. Gayme, and E. Mallada, “Coordinating Distribution System Resources for Co-optimized Participation in Energy and Ancillary Service Transmission System Markets,” in American Control Conference, 2019, pp. 1315-1322.
[Bibtex] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

This paper investigates the potential of using aggregate controllable loads and energy storage systems from multiple heterogeneous feeders to jointly optimize a utility’s energy procurement cost from the real-time market and their revenue from ancillary service markets. Toward this, we formulate an optimization problem that co-optimizes real-time and energy reserve markets based on real-time and ancillary service market prices, along with available solar power, storage and demand data from each of the feeders within a single distribution network. The optimization, which includes all network system constraints, provides real/reactive power and energy storage set-points for each feeder as well as a schedule for the aggregate system’s participation in the two types of markets. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm using several trace-driven simulations based on a real-world circuit of a New Jersey utility. The results demonstrate that active participation through controllable loads and storage significantly reduces the utility’s net costs, i.e., real-time energy procurement costs minus ancillary market revenues.

@inproceedings{jhgm2019acc,
  abstract = {This paper investigates the potential of using aggregate controllable loads and energy storage systems from multiple heterogeneous feeders to jointly optimize a utility's energy procurement cost from the real-time market and their revenue from ancillary service markets. Toward this, we formulate an optimization problem that co-optimizes real-time and energy reserve markets based on real-time and ancillary service market prices, along with available solar power, storage and demand data from each of the feeders within a single distribution network. The optimization, which includes all network system constraints, provides real/reactive power and energy storage set-points for each feeder as well as a schedule for the aggregate system's participation in the two types of markets. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm using several trace-driven simulations based on a real-world circuit of a New Jersey utility. The results demonstrate that active participation through controllable loads and storage significantly reduces the utility's net costs, i.e., real-time energy procurement costs minus ancillary market revenues.},
  author = {Ji, Chengda and Hajiesmaili, Mohammad H. and Gayme, Dennice F. and Mallada, Enrique},
  booktitle = {American Control Conference},
  doi = {10.23919/ACC.2019.8815242},
  grants = {CAREER-1752362, ENERGISE-DE-EE0008006, EPCN-1711188},
  month = {06},
  pages = {1315-1322},
  title = {Coordinating Distribution System Resources for Co-optimized Participation in Energy and Ancillary Service Transmission System Markets},
  url = {https://mallada.ece.jhu.edu/pubs/2019-ACC-JHGM.pdf},
  year = {2019}
}